[ ] .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..


. , , , 17 . - . . . , 18 . - . 20- . 19 . - . , , . "" ( 1804). 40-50- . . 1857 "" - . . . . ("", "" .). 1860-61 . . "" " ", ""; " " . . 1865 . . . 70-80- . . . . ("" ) . ("" ); 1903 . - "". 1908 "" (. . , . , - ). "" : (1913, 1917), (1915), . (1916), . . (1917-19), . . (1921) . 1925 : , . . - . . . . . , 1925 " " , . . (" " , 1929) . ("" , 1937; 1929 ""). . . : . - "" (1940), " " (1944), " " (1947); . - "" (1949); . - " " (1952); - " " (1955); . - " " (1960). "" . . . . : . . (1926-27, 1936, 1947), (1928-1930, 1932, 1934), . . (1931), . (1934), . (1937-41, 1944, 1946, 1948), . (1942), . (1942-44), . (1947), (1949), . (1952-53) .; 50-60- . - . ; 70- . - . , . , . . 1975 . ("", ""; " " . . , ""), . : ("", "", " ", " "), (""; " " . -), (" "), . (" " . ظ), (" " . ), . ("" . , "" . ), (" ", " ", " " - . ), (" " ), (""; " " . , " " , "" , " ", "-"), . (" ", "" . ). . "". 1971 . .: "" . , "" , "" . " " . 1975 . . . , " " - . . " " (1975). . . . "". 30- . . . . . ( 1932) . ( 1947). 50-70- . : - . , . , . , . , . , . , . ; - . , . , . , . , . , . , . , . . . , 1968 . . - . (1956-57 1961), (1968-73), , (1973), , , . . (1973-74), (1975). . . . 1968-73 "-" - , . ( 1971 - -). . . , . - " " - ( 1946), . ( 1948), ( 1967); . . . . , . , . . , . , "". . ( 20- .), . , . ( 1931-49), . , . , . .

(: . , , 1981)
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